This paper analyzes historical disagreements among utilitarians, specifically regarding justice and political theory. Utilitarians hold varying perspectives on the existence of universal rules that maximize utility, and whether total or average utility should be maximized. After reviewing centuries of discourse, this paper defends the author’s thoughts on utilitarianism.
What moral obligations do businesses have to the environment? What responsibility does the government have to regulate the balance between social and market costs? This essay explores social responsibility and environmental ethics through the analysis of Pigouvian taxation, specifically in the context of a tax on carbon emissions in Massachusetts.
This paper is a utilitarian critique of Kant’s categorical imperatives. I maintain that constants exist in consequences (such as happiness and pain), but not in moral actions. Therefore, Kant’s emphasis on intent and universalizability disregards consequences and the complexity of situations in favor of rigid and impossible moral laws.
This paper analyzes the historical significance of John Locke’s political philosophy, specifically regarding the American Revolution. The historical analysis of absolutism, natural rights, and political philosophy is vital to understanding the modern context of these concepts and their reflections in contemporary governments.
This paper defends my utilitarian perspective of moral standing and moral duties. I argue that the ultimate criterion for moral standing is the ability to experience pain since it is the only element that is intrinsically bad. Moral agents have a responsibility to minimize the average amount of pain experienced by all sentient beings.
This essay asserts that national identity is a manifestation of humanity’s natural desire to seek patterns, simplify complex matters, and acquire a sense of belonging. However, human intelligence allows us to recognize the flaws of our social tendencies and to rethink identity in the vision of intergroup unity.
This paper contrasts the supply-side economic theory of Reaganomics to the Keynesian thought of the mid-twentieth century. Keeping in mind the many factors influencing the economy over the last century, this essay compares each theory’s impact on the American lower and middle classes.