This paper is a utilitarian critique of Kant’s categorical imperatives. I maintain that constants exist in consequences (such as happiness and pain), but not in moral actions. Therefore, Kant’s emphasis on intent and universalizability disregards consequences and the complexity of situations in favor of rigid and impossible moral laws.
This paper analyzes the historical significance of John Locke’s political philosophy, specifically regarding the American Revolution. The historical analysis of absolutism, natural rights, and political philosophy is vital to understanding the modern context of these concepts and their reflections in contemporary governments.
Methods to balance democracy and authority were among the first debates of American politics. James Madison proposed a system of modest popular participation alongside a clearly defined ruling class. The numerous obstacles to popular participation in the modern American government reflect Madison’s fear of pure democracy. This passage deliberates the nature of democracy and authority to understand these mechanisms and assess their moral validity.